2018-11-27

Både svårighet och begåvning? Anpassa för 2e så här.


Följande utdrag som jag översatt kommer från delstaten Colorados riktlinjer för att undervisa 2e-elever.

Längre ner på sidan kommer ett hundratal tips och exempel på anpassningar, som skolan kan arbeta med, skriva in i utvecklingsplan eller åtgärdsprogram, osv.


Att undervisa 2e-barn kräver 2 fokus:

Du måste möta styrkor och svårigheter samtidigt.

Dubbla fokus är helt nödvändigt, när man planerar undervisningen av en dubbelt exceptionell elev. Både elevens styrkor och elevens svårigheter måste mötas, samtidigt.

Sju steg för en strategisk plan för att undervisa en 2e-elev:


1. Identifiera alla intressenter

Det bör finnas en utpekad grupp som arbetar för 2e-eleverna på skolan. Gruppen ska innehålla representanter för alla intressenter – de som kommer att påverkas av undervisningsplaneringen, och de som kommer att bidra i att genomföra planen.

Gruppen ska alltså innehålla representanter för lärare, mentorer, skolledning, elever och föräldrar. Vidare behövs representanter med inriktning på specialpedagogik, undervisning av begåvade elever samt elevhälsa, såsom skolpsykolog och kurator. Ofta är det värdefullt att ha med även arbetsterapeut, logoped, socialtjänst, fritidsledare och studie- och yrkesvägledare.



2. Samarbeta i ett problemlösningsteam

Gruppen som ska samarbeta kring en viss 2e-elev har också deltagare från varje intressentgrupp. En person utses till facilitator, med ansvar för att styra arbetet och se till att diskussionerna är konstruktiva och stödjande.

Gruppen samarbetar fram en undervisningsplanering för eleven, övervakar elevens framsteg och mäter elevens utveckling.


3. Fastställ elevens styrkor och intressen


Ta reda på elevens styrkor och intressen. Bestäm vilka datapunkter som ska ge underlag i beslutsprocessen.

På vilka områden presterar eleven goda resultat? Vad är lätt för eleven? Hur vet vi det – vilka data visar detta? Är det föräldrars berättelse, elevens berättelse, resultat på prov, observation i klassrummet, en fritidsaktivitet, eller något annat?

Vilka passioner och intressen har eleven? Vad gillar eleven att göra på fritiden? Hur vet vi det?



4. Kartlägg elevens utmaningar och behov

Identifiera och kartlägg elevens svårigheter. Bestäm vilka datapunkter som ska ge underlag i beslutsprocessen.

Vilka ämnen är svåra för eleven? Finns det problemskapande situationer eller beteenden? Vilken typ av undervisning fungerar sämre för eleven? Vilka data visar detta?


5. Välj en styrka och en svårighet att fokusera

Välj en styrka och en svårighet, som handlingsplanen ska fokusera på. Ta in eventuella frågor och tankar från det problemlösande laget. Behöver ni samla in ytterligare uppgifter?

Genom att se till att eleven hela tiden lyckas, och är i lärande, i sina starka områden, ger ni förutsättningarna för att eleven ska kunna utveckla självkänsla och självständighet. Undervisning som fokuserar på elevens intressen, kan motivera eleven att orka ta sig igenom svårigheter.

2e-elever behöver mycket tydliga instruktioner, på de områden de har svårigheter. De behöver också få lära sig studieteknik, och strategier för att kompensera för sina svårigheter, så att de kan utveckla en förmåga att arbeta självständigt.


6. Skriv en handlingsplan

Tydliga gemensamma mål stärker gruppens engagemang och samarbete.

Skriv en handlingsplan med specifika mätbara mål. Bestäm konkreta tidssatta insatser. Bestäm vem som utför varje insats. Bestäm ett datum för utvärdering, då gruppen träffas igen. 

Bestäm också hur elevens framsteg ska dokumenteras, följas, mätas. Skriv vilka anpassningar planen kräver, och vilka material och andra resurser.

Välj anpassningar som säkrar att eleven lär sig och utvecklas inom sina styrkeområden och intresseområden. Välj också anpassningar som säkrar att eleven verkligen får tillgång till lärandet, så att svårigheterna inte står i vägen. 

Skriv ner hur ni ska ge eleven särskilt tydliga instruktioner, och hur ni ska lära eleven studieteknik och kompenserande strategier.



7. Genomför planen

Genomför insatserna med eleven. Dokumentera hur eleven svarar på insatserna. Dokumentera också elevens framgångar respektive svårigheter. Facilitatorn följer upp om de ansvariga personerna arbetar enligt planen.


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Risk: skolan ser varken styrkorna eller svårigheterna

Elever som har både begåvning och svårigheter löper stora risker, eftersom deras behov sällan upptäcks – varken behovet av stöd och anpassningar i undervisningen, eller behovet av emotionellt och socialt stöd. 


Detta resulterar ofta i ojämna resultat, vilket kan leda till att lärare tror att eleven bara inte anstränger sig tillräckligt. Dolda funktionsnedsättningar och svårigheter kan göra att elever med hög kognitiv förmåga inte kan uppnå sin potential, inte kan visa vad de faktiskt vet och klarar.

Bara själva frustrationen, av att känna att skolan inte ser vad jag kan, och inte förstår att jag behöver hjälp, kan leda till svårigheter socialt och känslomässigt, och till problemskapande beteenden.

Det krävs ett samarbete mellan lärare, specialpedagog, föräldrar och kunniga inom undervisning för särskilt begåvade elever, för att skolor ska klara att identifiera sina 2e-elever och genomföra det som krävs för att möta dessa elevers olika behov.

Svårigheter och funktionsnedsättningar behöver identifieras tidigt, så att skolan gör lämpliga insatser från början.

Lärarna kan använda strategier för att 
  • utveckla varje elevs potential
  • hitta kunskapsluckor som behöver fyllas
  • ge tydliga instruktioner
  • lära eleverna strategier för att kompensera för sina svårigheter
  • främja elevernas sociala och emotionella utveckling
  • stödja och träna dem i att stå ut med sina ojämna förmågor.

Låg självkänsla och lågt självförtroende är mycket vanligt hos 2e-barn. Men de döljer det ofta i ilska, självkritik, störande beteende, dagdrömmande etc.

Styrkor och svårigheter kan maskera varandra. Eleven kan därmed framstå som genomsnittlig och fungerande. Men ojämna resultat kan då ändå ge signaler om att eleven inte alls är genomsnittlig, utan har både hög begåvning och funktionsnedsättning eller andra svårigheter som kräver stöd och anpassningar.

Alla begåvade elever behöver balanserade insatser och anpassningar för sin begåvning, över hela skoltiden. Verktyg som används för begåvade elever inkluderar acceleration, berikning, fördjupning, särskild utbildning i studieteknik och högre tänkande, emotionell vägledning och rådgivning samt differentierad undervisning i blandade grupper. Verktygen är baserade på nationella standarder (i USA), forskning och bästa praxis inom utbildning för begåvade elever.

Strategierna och verktygen förbättrar elevernas motivation, utvecklar deras självförtroende och stödjer dem i att prestera goda resultat.




Anpassningar baserade på styrkor och intressen

Dessa strategier ger en stimulerande utbildningsmiljö, och utvecklar abstrakt tänkande, kreativitet och problemlösning. De främjar aktivt utredande, experiment och diskussion. Tonvikten läggs på elevernas beredskap, intressen och lärsätt. De förutsätter att eleven har en egen motivation.

Läraren ger uppgifter med flera alternativ till hur varje elev väljer att lösa dem, så att eleverna kan använda sina styrkor för att visa sin kunskap.


Exempel:Inför ett nytt moment, gör ett diagnostiskt förprov av det kommande innehållet. De elever som kan det mesta får ett A direkt och får ägna tiden åt andra specialprojekt. De elever som kan en del redan, eller har en hög begåvning, får komprimerade uppgifter (50 procent av materialet räcker).

Begåvade elever slipper repetera.

Fördjupningsuppgifter och material så att de begåvade eleverna kan undersöka ett ämne djupare. 

Vissa gillar att fungera som klassens expert, kanske föreläsa, eller hjälpa de andra eleverna.



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Läs mer – här i bloggen: Mina samlade råd och tankar om att möta 2e-elever, med andra forskningsunderlag, samt elevers och föräldrars berättelser.


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Rekommendationer i en föreläsning av Amanda Drury, lärare och specialpedagog med 15 års erfarenhet, vid den internationella konferensen World Gifted 2017

Supporting Twice Exceptional Students in the Classroom:

Strengths Based Approach


By providing a strengths based approach, for not only twice exceptional students, but ALL students, we will give them the opportunity to celebrate their strengths, and the strengths of others, and to celebrate difference, seeing it for all the wonderful things it can be. When we focus on student strengths in twice exceptional students, we are giving them the opportunity to thrive and be the amazing people they can be into their adolescence and adulthood. In this way we are giving them the opportunity to achieve and be successful in any way they wish to be.

Step 1: Identify

 Note behaviours that may be indicative of giftedness and / or disability, which have been observed more than once.

 Seek support from persons responsible for gifted / special needs students in the school.

 If possible, arrange a meeting with the student’s parents to determine whether observations made at school match behaviours from home. Discuss behaviours at home, what the child’s interests are, information on past developmental milestones, and how their skills such as reading and Maths are at home.

 Begin collecting evidence of giftedness and other suspected disabilities or challenges, using a checklist to take down notes, including date, time and circumstances so a pattern can be established. 



Step 2: Analysis of Specific Needs

 If the evidence from step one strongly points to the student being twice exceptional, seek ways of having them assessed for Giftedness AND the suspected disability / disabilities. 

Assessments, if possible, should be done by psychological specialists who understand BOTH disability and giftedness, and how they affect learning and test scores - so testing is made more accurate (Hill, 2011). See if Duel Assessment (for a disability and giftedness) is available, and whether the child’s parents would be willing to asses privately. 

Step 3: Create a Learning Profile

 Put together a learning profile for the student with detailed notes on how they learn, both their weaknesses and their strengths, and update these as more information comes in from assessments. 

Step 4: Eradicate Learned Helplessness

 Install growth mindset strategies for wellbeing into the daily classroom routine (Dweck, 2012).

Teach emotional regulation strategies to combat frustration (Baum, 2013; Hill, 2011). For example, social skills programmes, counselling, one on one support.

 Put physical supports in place, for helping the student to achieve in their strength areas, and to support their challenges

 Use interest based instruction, to encourage attempts in challenge areas (Baum, 2013; Siegle & McCoach, 2005). For example, if the student has a strong interest in Science, but is dyslexic, teach writing around topics embedded in Science literature. 

Step 5: Design an Individual Programme

 Put an Independent Learning Plan (ILP) in place for the student, setting specific goals for them, in coordination with their parents, with equal focus on strengths and challenges. Ideally some of the learning plan goals should include both, by using student strengths to support their challenges.

Regularly update and differentiate the curriculum to fit with the student’s needs, including challenge and extension (Baum, 2013).

 Provide opportunities for the student to excel in strength areas, through mentorship, school lunch time activities or clubs, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Technology) projects, group leadership, and subject acceleration (Baum, 2013).

 Provide opportunities for the student to learn with like-minded peers, or peers that have similar interests (Hill, 2011; Rogers, 2007).

 Support their organisational skills through the use of written lists, with visual cues they can follow, which are inconspicuous (Gathercole et al., 2006).

 Support the student’s disability through targeted remediation, to strengthen their weaknesses (Baum, 2013). 


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Jeffco Public Schools Twice-Exceptional Resource Book:

Suggested accommodations and strategies for twice-exceptional learners 

Strengths & Interests

  • Focus attention on the development of strengths, interests, and intellectual capabilities rather than disabilities 
  • Provide a stimulating educational environment, where there are opportunities for critical/creative thinking and problem solving 
  • Encourage the development of strength area by allowing time and resources to explore interests 
  • Offer options for acquiring information, and communicating what is learned, using multiple intelligences and learning styles 
  • Provide connections to real world situations, and build on student’s intrinsic motivation 
  • Ask student to become residential expert for the class in his area of strength 
  • Pretest and compact the curriculum when student has mastered concepts 
  • Encourage awareness of individual strengths, weaknesses, interests, and learning style 

Assignments

  • Allow student to vary assignments and use alternative ways to demonstrate knowledge such as give an oral presentation, tape recorded or video response, create a poster or book jacket, etc 
  • Use “most difficult first” strategy and “pre-testing” to allow students to demonstrate mastery of concepts 
  • Provide a grading rubric or show an example of what is expected 
  • Incorporate high interest topics or activities to enhance the likelihood they will initiate and sustain work on assignments 

Study Skills

  • Teach students how to study, prepare for tests, and organize reports and projects 
  • Encourage students to start a homework session by planning what will be accomplished during the session 
  • Ask students to jot down how long they think an assignment will take and ask them to record how long it actually took them 
  • Encourage students to learn compensation strategies to bypass their disabilities 

Goal Setting

  • Celebrate effort, completion of homework, and attainment of goals 
  • Help the student learn to break down and chunk projects into steps with realistic short-term goals 
  • Promote success as the ability to achieve realistic short-term goals 
  • Provide opportunities for students to explore career and college opportunities 
  • Encourage students to be independent autonomous learners 

Organization

  • Incorporate organizational activities into classroom 
  • Team unorganized student with a well-organized peer for collaborative project; be sure each student can contribute from a strength area 
  • Guide students through long-term projects designed to demonstrate good planning and time allocation 
  • Provide time for students to organize their desks and lockers 
  • Emphasize time management in the classroom; give notice for deadlines, tests, etc 
  • Allow time at the end of the day for students to get organized before they leave school 

Social/ Emotional

  • Assist students in developing positive coping strategies such as seeking support, positive reappraisal, and accepting responsibility 
  • Help student deal with fear of failure, fear of success, procrastination, and paralyzing anxiety 
  • Provide a nurturing environment that values and respects individual difference 
  • Have a positive attitude and high expectations 

Perfectionism 

  • Help student view mistakes as a valued part of the learning process 
  • Seek opportunities to complement student on effort rather than ability 
  • Encourage students to equate effort with success 

Writing

  • Provide graphic organizers to help students process and communicate information 
  • Use technology to help with written work and promote productivity 
  • Encourage the development of computer skills (word processing, graphic organizers, spell and grammar checker) 
  • Provide jump-starts to help students begin assignment. For example, provide the first sentence of the paragraph 
  • Integrate writing in ways that make them an important means to accomplishing the desired goal 

Homework

  • Record homework on voice-mail or website so students can access assignments from home 
  • Assist student in creating a “To Do List” and help prioritize homework 
  • Make sure student understands the homework by having him retell the assignment 
  • Encourage student to talk through the steps he will use when completing assignments and projects 
  • Help him break down tasks into manageable segments and use a calendar to plan steps needed to complete project 
  • Emphasize mastery of concepts and minimize home practice 

ADHD & Auditory Processing

  • Provide opportunities for structured movement with a purpose such as sharpening a pencil or running an errand 
  • Use hands-on experiences to teach concepts 
  • Provide clear, concise directions, expectations, and rules that are limited in number 
  • Provide a great deal of structure and consistency in daily schedule with clearly defined rules and consequences 
  • Chunk assignments into segments like 6 five-minute segments, or 10 sets of two problems, rather than 20 problems in a 30-minute period 
  • Provide frequent positive feedback and re-direction 
  • Preferential seating near the front of the class away from distracting noise (window or door) 
  • Watch for signs that the student does not understand the auditory message 
  • Alert student when important information is being shared 
  • Allow short breaks during the day to give student’s inefficient auditory system a rest and decrease possibility of fatigue 
  • Give student a conceptual framework or overview of new material, use overheads, visual aids, and hands-on instruction. 


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... nedan kommer ännu fler exempel, och längst ner, ännu mer länkar ... men här är lite länkar som halvlekspaus ...


Colorado har även riktlinjer på nivå 2. Alltså fortsättningskursen, när skolan har första nivån på plats.
Och Colorado har en webbkurs om att undervisa särskilt begåvade elever.


Om länkarna inte funkar ligger materialen i denna mapp:
https://www.dropbox.com/sh/jjpguty5bjg7i93/AAB6Sk_0pKjUO5UfLQpjhoRfa?dl=0

Här finns en presentation från 2016 av två experter
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1hFtvCla94oU3CCvIq_Y5B5qTLKLSmQcEqlhStNvOpRY/edit#slide=id.gf611f45a8_5_0


Artiklar:
När lärare själva fick välja att jobba utifrån svagheter eller styrkor ...

Myter om begåvade elever och 2e

Jobba med styrkorna först – en erfaren lärare bloggar






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idaho state department of education
TWICE-EXCEPTIONAL: 
STUDENTS WITH BOTH GIFTS 
AND CHALLENGES OR DISABILITIES

Accommodations and Instructional Strategies

Adapted from Colorado Introductory Resource Book


Cognitive Processing / General Intellectual Ability

Strength/Interest-Based Strategies

• Provide fast-pace instruction and provisions for progress through curricula at the student’s personal learning rate.

• Place emphasis on higher level abstract thinking and problem solving.

• Utilize pre-testing to identify what students know and eliminate unnecessary drill.

• Use instructional planning that anticipates diverse learning needs and characteristics of individual students.

• Use inter-disciplinary instruction and application of learning content to aid students in making connections.

• Place emphasis on student’s interests, learning styles, and strengths.

• Provide opportunities for independent and small group projects and investigations.

• Create a conceptual framework or overview of new material for conceptual/holistic processing.

• Utilize concept-based thematic instruction.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• Provide class notes and step-by-step homework instructions.

• Extend time for students with slow processing and fluency issues time to think deeply.

• Allow audio/video taped, verbal, or display responses instead of written response.

• Use technology to increase productivity.

• Provide sound blocking headphones and preferential seating away from distracting noises.

• Chunk new learning into manageable subtasks.

• Use audio system for a student with auditory processing or hearing problems.

• C reate kinesthetic response and visual graphs/charts to support learning and demonstrate relationships.

• Incorporate organizational activities into classroom activities.

• Make sure students understand the homework by having them retell what they are to do.

• T eam disorganized student with a well-organized student for collaborative project, making sure each student can contribute from a strength area.

• Provide comfortable furniture, exercise ball, lap weight.

• Develop teacher/student predetermined subtle signals to indicate needs.


Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Teach students to create flow charts, graphic organizers, and cognitive webs.

• Train students how to identify important facts or concepts and to create outlines or webs.

• Use self-talk to accompany visual input.

• Coach students in the use of mnemonics to enhance memory.

• Teach meta-cognitive/mental scripts that emphasize self-regulation.

• Demonstrate and teach task-analysis and prioritization strategies.

• T each strategies to maintain attention, like sitting up straight and leaning upper body toward speaker.

• Highlight and color-code to organize and prioritize new information.

• P rovide instruction in self-directed learning skills with emphasis on study skills, time management skills, organizational skills etc.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Intervention/Remediation

• Coach students in setting realistic long-term and short-term goals.

• Teach students to chunk or break down project into steps and talk through steps.

• Instruct in systematic multi-sensory approaches.

• Teach students how to rephrase key ideas and link to key words.

• Teach strategies to group and categorize information.

• Provide direct instruction in organization, time management, and study skills.

• Provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness, phonics, and decoding.

• Teach verbal mnemonics and rhyming to increase automaticity.

• U se games to encourage fact memorization and continued practice using dice rolls, spinners, and game cards.

• Provide explicit instruction in social skills.


Creativity

Strength/Interest-Based Strategies

• Provide opportunities for “real world” investigations and experiences (in-depth study of real problems, career exploration, etc.)

• Encourage fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration through open-ended classroom activities and products.

• Provide opportunities for creative problem solving and divergent thinking techniques.

• Utilize biographies of creative/talented individuals to promote success and to provide awareness of characteristics.

• Provide opportunities for students to connect prior knowledge to new learning experiences and to establish relationships across disciplines.

• Utilize think, pair, share strategies.

• Integrate creative thinking skills and problem-solving strategies with core learning content.

• Emphasize mastery of concepts and minimize home practice.


Accommodations to Access Learning

• Provide creative choices when students process information or develop products.

• Provide opportunities for creative and critical thinking.

• Assess specific content in spelling, writing skills separate from other content.

• Allow multiple ways for students to demonstrate knowledge.

• P rovide a stimulating educational environment where there are opportunities for critical and creative thinking and problem solving.

• Emphasize time management in the classroom and give notice for deadlines, tests, etc.

• Allow time at the end of the day for students to get organized before they leave school.

• Encourage students to learn compensation strategies to bypass their disabilities.

• Celebrate effort, completion of homework, and attainment of goals.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Instruct students in the multi-steps of creative problem solving to identify problem, explore data, generate ideas, develop solutions, build acceptance, and implement plan.

• C oach students in SCAMPER technique to substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to other use, eliminate, and rearrange.

• T each technique of brainstorming so students can generate numerous and innovative ideas or alternatives in a safe environment where judgment is withheld.

• Coach students in generating ideas or alternatives with fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration.

• E ncourage students to start a homework session by planning what will be accomplished during the session.

• A sk students to jot down how long they think an assignment will take and ask them to record how long it actually took.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Intervention/Remediation


• Teach idea-generation and brainstorming.

• Instruct students in paraphrasing.

• C oach students in how to break down and chunk projects into multiple steps with realistic short-term goals.

• Promote success as the ability to achieve realistic short-term goals.

• Provide opportunities for students to explore career and college opportunities.

• Teach students how to solve problems using creative problem-solving steps.

• E ncourage students to talk through the steps they will use when completing assignments and projects.

• H elp them break down tasks into manageable segments and use a calendar to plan steps needed to complete project.

• Provide specific instruction on organization.

• Teach students how to study, prepare for tests, and organize reports and projects.


Interpersonal/Leadership


Strength/Interest-Based Strategies


• Provide opportunities in the classroom for students to develop their leadership skills.

• Encourage a social climate within the classroom that fosters acceptance and appreciation for the strengths of all students.

• Read, analyze, and discuss biographies of famous leaders.

• A sk students to develop a list of qualities of a leader of their choice and then have students compare or contrast their own qualities with those of the leader.

• P rovide learning opportunities for students to work cooperatively with peers of like ability and interests.

• U se hypothetical situations, bibliotherapy, and moral dilemmas to foster an accepting environment for all students.

• Search for strengths of students and build on those strengths.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• C onstantly search for opportunities to promote and encourage appropriate social interactions for socially challenged students.

• P rovide preferential grouping or pre-select teams of students — don’t permit students to choose and reject others.

• Set clear expectations for behaviors.

• Do not tolerate intolerance.

• Provide preferential seating.

• Encourage students to develop interpersonal and leadership skills.

• Clearly state and consistently implement expectations and consequences.

• Develop behavior plans to address problem situations.

• Avoid power struggles. Pick your battles and maintain a calm, neutral response.

• Communicate with peers or experts online.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Teach skills needed to participate successfully in group work.

• P rovide groups with checklists of social skills needed for group work and have students evaluate their group process.

• Teach empathy.

• Provide positive reinforcement when students use the skills they were taught.

• Teach leadership skills and provide in-school leadership opportunities.

• Encourage and teach students how to become self-advocates.

• Help students learn to value diversity.

• Provide opportunities for structured group work.

• Develop high-level effective communication, collaboration, and self-advocacy skills.

• Support a positive environment where students respect and complement others.


Explicit Instructional Strategies: Intervention/Remediation


• Provide friendship groups where students can learn and practice interpersonal skills.

• Assist students in learning social skills and appropriate interactions.

• P rovide opportunities for students to practice self-advocacy and have students role play to develop advocacy skills.

• Teach students how to develop and maintain friendships.

• Help students learn how to resolve issues that occur as friendships grow.

• Encourage the development of effective skills to interact with peers.

• Provide support services for students with trained counselors or social workers.

• Teach students to work as part of a team.

• Teach skills for resolving conflicts.

• Coach students in understanding body language and reading social cues.

Intrapersonal and Social/Emotional

Strength/Interest-Based Strategies

• Provide a nurturing environment that values and respects individual differences.

• Include activities which will help the student explore his/her attitudes, opinions, and selfawareness.

• T each knowledge of self including learning abilities, learning styles, interests, nature of giftedness, etc.

• Help students view mistakes as a valued part of the learning process.

• S eek opportunities to compliment students on effort rather than ability and encourage rather than compliment.

• Encourage students to equate effort with success.

• P rovide students with frequent opportunities to work cooperatively in appropriately designed groups.

• Teach awareness and expression of different feelings, i.e. creative products, “I” Statements.

• Teach meta-cognition and sensitivity to others.

• Provide access to scholars, expert practitioners, and gifted role models.

• Teach relaxation techniques.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• Allow breaks for physical activity to reduce mental fatigue.

• Maximize success and minimize failures.

• Offer counseling and guidance strategies specifically designed around the unique affective needs of GT students (feelings of being different, effects of uneven development, motivation, coping with learning barriers).

• P rovide career exploration and career counseling programs including future education planning, counseling, and guidance.

• F ocus attention on the development of strengths, interests, and intellectual capabilities rather than disabilities.

• E ncourage the development of strength areas by allowing time and resources to explore interests.

• Ask students to become resident experts for the class in their areas of strength or interest.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Teach students to use self-talk/meta-cognitive cues to accompany processing.

• Help students understand that mistakes are a part of the learning process.

• Work with students to develop a grading rubric before a project begins.

• Teach students how to evaluate their own work.

• Encourage students to set realistic goals and to evaluate their progress.

• Help students learn to set realistic goals and develop a plan to achieve those goals.

• Teach knowledge and skills necessary to manage potential difficulties in learning such as perfectionism, risk-taking, stress, heightened sensitivities, pressure to perform, and high expectations of self and others.

• Help students deal with fear of failure, fear of success, procrastination, and paralyzing anxiety.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Intervention/Remediation

• Provide support services with a counselor, school psychologist, or social worker.

• Teach mental scripts that emphasize self-regulation.

• Teach strategies to manage anger.

• Promote and teach positive coping strategies.

• Work at building resiliency.

• H elp them to use positive self-talk about studying and to develop positive self-monitoring strategies.

• Teach how to identify and manage feelings.

• Develop personal behavior management skills.

• Teach the student to label, control, and express his/her emotions appropriately.

• A ssist students in developing positive coping strategies such as seeking support, positive reappraisal, and accepting responsibility.


Physical/Psychomotor/Athletics

Strength/Interest-Based Strategies

• Teach physical relaxation techniques.

• Encourage students to move purposefully while they learn to encourage retention and transfer.

• Teach students a variety of strategies to meet their sensory needs without distracting others.

• Allow students to stand and move while they do their work.

P re-test and compact the curriculum when students have mastered concepts to eliminate unnecessary drill and practice.

• P rovide hands-on experiential learning opportunities so students can enhance learning by making mind/body connections.

• Use “most difficult first” strategy (see Differentiated Curriculum) and pre-testing to allow students to demonstrate mastery of concepts and eliminate unnecessary drills.

• Provide a great deal of structure and consistency in daily schedule with clearly defined rules and consequences.

• Incorporate high-interest topics or activities to enhance the likelihood students will initiate and sustain work on assignments.

• Create opportunities for students to build a model or a 3D display.

• E ncourage students to pursue writing in their area of interest and share with appropriate audiences.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• P rovide opportunities for movement with a purpose such as sharpening a pencil or running an errand.

• A llow breaks for physical activity to relieve mental stress and move knowledge into long-term memory.

• Allow use of manipulatives (silly putty, balls, clay, etc.) to help sustain attention.

• Eliminate excessive copying from the board or book to paper.

• Provide preferential seating away from distractions.

• Provide adaptive physical education.

• Provide clear, concise directions, expectations.

• Grade papers for ideas, not handwriting.

• P rovide grading rubric and/or show an example of what is expected by demonstrating movement.

• Record homework on voicemail or web site so student can access assignments from home.

• Give positive feedback and re-direction when attention wanders.

• Build lots of movement into learning tasks for those students who learn better when they are moving.

• Allow students to stand at their desk, sit, or lie on the floor while they do their ‘seat’ work.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Classroom teacher collaborates with special educators.

• Teach keyboarding skills.

• Teach students how to create and give a multimedia presentation.

• Use audio tape instead of handwriting notes.

• Learn to use oral input software.

• Teach strategies for dealing with change.

• Introduce creative handwriting activities where the student can have fun while practicing correct letter formation.

• Practicing correct letter formation.

• Break down writing into smaller tasks whenever possible.

• Teach visual approach to spelling.

• Brainstorm ideas prior to writing.

• Alert students when important information is being shared.

• Provide clear, concise directions, expectations, and rules that are limited in number.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• E ncourage students to think about training to study and do school work the same way they train for a sport.

• Provide instruction in proper sequencing of handwriting specific letters.

• P rovide practice to improve visual motor control with activities where students coordinate what they do with what they use (i.e. use of easels, chalkboards, playing jacks, pick up sticks, etc.)

• Teach students to create a “To Do List” and prioritize homework.

• Teach reading and writing strategies like outlining, mapping, and editing.

• T each students self-management skills like strategies for staying on task, skills for thinking and waiting before acting, and skills for sustaining attention.

• Provide practice tracing shapes and letters, especially similar letters such as l, j, t, etc.

• Teach keyboarding and word processing.



Specific Academics


Strength/Interest-Based Strategies

• Use flexible, non-permanent instructional grouping practices designed to facilitate accelerated/advanced academic learning (cluster groups, cross-age groups, interest groups, etc.)

• P rovide content learning that requires gifted and talented students to be engaged in higherlevel thinking, abstract thinking, and problem-solving.

• Use challenging reading program/materials (Jr. Great Books or William & Mary Curriculum).

• P rovide high-level materials, activity and product options that include analytical and critical thinking skills.

• A ccelerate vocabulary development through a variety of strategies and materials (Latin stems, analogies).

• E ncourage participation in creative writing opportunities, debate, or advanced literacy activities.

• P retest in math to identify material already mastered and replace with enriched and accelerated material.

• U se high-level problem solving approaches that emphasize open-ended problems with multiple solutions or multiple paths to solutions.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• Provide books on tape for students who struggle with readings and high-level discussions.

• Use advanced organizers or provide outlines.

• Utilize computer spell check, thesaurus, grammar checker, and calculator.

• Display fact charts or have fact charts available for student use.

• Reduce number of problems required or increase amount of time for assignment.

• Provide adequate space for students to work out solutions.

• Cut the worksheet in half or in fourths, and require the completion of one section at a time.

• Use matrix paper as a physical guide to keep the numbers aligned.

• Provide copies of notes and overheads.

• Shorten directions and make them clear and concise.

• Encourage neatness rather than penalize for sloppiness.

• Clearly segment instruction and plan 20-minute instructional segments.


Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Teach Inspiration software to aid students in organizing information, writing, and projects.

• Instruct students in how to break new learning into manageable subtasks.

• Teach students how to keep an idea journal.

• Instruct students in the use of highlighters to note key information.

• Highlight the mathematical sign for operation to be performed.

• Use manipulatives and arrays to help students understand mathematical processes.

• Provide instruction for a wide range of technology and software to increase productivity.

• Estimate amount of time an activity will take and determine how long it actually took.

• Provide training in the use of visual tracking aids.

• Teach research strategies and skills essential for in-depth study and advanced learning.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Intervention/Remediation

• Use systematic multi-sensory approaches to teach decoding/encoding.

• P rovide instruction in organization/strategies for written language, computation, problem solving.

• Utilize choral reading to increase fluency.

• Teach typing and word processing.

• Use activities to increase rate and fluency (flash cards, computer games, etc.)

• Teach students to prioritize homework.

• Encourage three-finger tracking.

• P rovide direct instruction in comprehension strategies, connecting, inferencing, predicting, etc.

• Teach and model webbing, storyboarding, flow charting and mind mapping.

• Teach students to use checklists, keep logs, or mark their progress on a chart.


Visual, Spatial, and Performing Arts

Strength/Interest-Based Strategies

• P rovide exposure and access to advanced ideas, research, and works of eminent producers in many fields.

• Embed multiple intelligence strength areas into instruction.

• Create story boards.

• Learn and use visual-spatial strategies in the content areas.

• Use visual-spatial activities/products to improve performance in weaker academic area(s).

• Help students transfer abstract thinking into a variety of forms of expression.

• Use graphic organizers to help students organize and process information in content areas.

• O ffer choice in student assignments and assessments so students can use their strengths to demonstrate their knowledge.

Accommodations to Access Learning

• O ffer options for acquiring information and communicating what is learned using multiple intelligences and learning styles.

• Provide connections to real world and build on students’ intrinsic motivation.

• Allow students to vary assignments.

• Provide adaptive physical education.

• A llow students to vary assignments and use alternative ways to demonstrate knowledge, such as oral presentation, tape-recorded or video response, create a poster or book jacket, etc.

• Accept oral responses in lieu of written.

• Match teaching style to students’ learning styles.

• P rovide opportunities for students to demonstrate achievement and excellence through competitions, exhibitions, performances, presentations, etc.

• Provide environmental modifications to allow for movement, flexibility of workspace, etc.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Compensatory Strategies

• Use musical chants, raps, rhymes, melody, and rhythm to help students learn.

• Teach students to use visual imagery.

• Create visual graphs/charts to support new learning and demonstrate interrelationships.

• Teach grouping and categorizing strategies.

• Teach and model creating flow charts, graphic organizers, and cognitive webs.

• Anticipate/predict when and where difficulties may occur.

• Draw the solution to a problem to capitalize on visual strengths.

• M ake everything as visual as possible. Use graphic organizers, charts, graphs, timelines, maps, pictures, or videos.

• Teach problem-solving strategies.

• E ncourage struggling readers to listen to books on tape while following along in the text so they can participate in class discussion.

• Teach visual approach to spelling.

Explicit Instructional Strategies: Intervention/Remediation

• Provide direct instruction in use of Inspiration software

• Teach how to use visual imagery.

• Guide students through long-term projects designed to demonstrate good planning and time allocation.

• Teach students to use nonverbal cues and environmental cues.

• T each a variety of strategies to plan, organize, and manage daily routines and meet personal goals.

• Teach self-monitoring strategies.

• T each students to use meta-cognitive strategies to monitor their thinking in the learning process.

• Teach the meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and root words in order to teach new words.

• Provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness, phonics, and decoding.




Lästips från Colorado om 2e


Resources for Parents Websites:  Colorado Association for Gifted and Talented www.coloradogifted.org  National Association for Gifted Children www.nagc.org  The Center for Bright Kids www.centerforbrightkids.org  Understood.org www.understood.org Publications:  2e Newsletter www.2enewsletter.com  Parenting for High Potential (an NAGC Publication) http://www.nagc.org/resources-publications/nagcpublications/parenting-high-potential  Parenting Your Twice-Exceptional Child (from 2e Newsletter Spotlight series) http://www.2enewsletter.com/topic_store_spotlight.html Books:  Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz (2003, Vintage Books/Knopf-Doubleday) www.knopfdoubleday.com/imprint/vintage  School Success for Kids with ADHD by Stephan Silverman, Jacqueline Iseman & Sue Jeweler (2009, Prufrock Press)  School Success for Kids with Asperger’s Syndrome by Stephan Silverman & Rich Weinfeld (2007, Prufrock Press)  School Success for Kids with Autism by Andrew Egel, Katherine Holman & Christine Barthold (2012, Prufrock Press)  Successful Strategies for Twice-Exceptional Students by Kevin Besnoy, Frances Karnes & Kristen Stephens (2006, Prufrock Press)  The Survival Guide for Kids with Learning Differences by Rhonda Cummings (2016, Free Spirit Publishing) www.freespirit.com  To Be Gifted and Learning Disabled by Susan Baum & Steven Owen (2004, Creative Learning Press – now owned by Prufrock Press)  Understanding Twice-Exceptional Gifted Children by Beverly Trail (2011, Prufrock Press) www.prufrock.com
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1 kommentar:

Unknown sa...

Hej Anna! Du gör verkligen skillnad för oss som har särbegåvade barn och för oss som har Twice Exceptionals! Stort tack!!!!!